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# How does PHP determine the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators?

Hey everyone,

I've been working on some PHP code and I came across an interesting situation where I have an expression with multiple operators. I want to understand how exactly PHP determines the order of evaluation for these expressions.

I have been reading up on the topic, but I'm still a bit confused. I know that PHP follows a certain order of operations, similar to the concept of BODMAS or PEMDAS in mathematics. But I'm not sure if PHP strictly follows that order or if there are any exceptions or additional rules to consider.

Can someone please shed some light on this? How does PHP determine the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators? Are there any specific rules or exceptions that I should be aware of? Any explanations or examples would be greatly appreciated.

Thanks a lot!

## All Replies

Hello fellow PHP enthusiasts,

I'm here to share my personal insights on how PHP determines the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators.

In PHP, the order of evaluation follows operator precedence, which specifies the priority of operators. For instance, multiplication and division operations take precedence over addition and subtraction.

When dealing with an expression that contains multiple operators, PHP evaluates them iteratively based on their precedence. To ensure control over evaluation order, you can enclose subexpressions within parentheses, making it clear which parts to evaluate first.

Let's consider an example to demonstrate this: `6 + 2 * 3`. According to operator precedence, the multiplication (`2 * 3`) takes precedence over addition. Therefore, PHP evaluates the multiplication first, resulting in `6 + 6`, which yields the final answer of `12`.

However, it's important to note that PHP also adheres to the associativity of operators in cases when they have the same precedence. Associativity determines the order in which operators with the same precedence are evaluated. Most operators in PHP, such as addition and subtraction, have left-to-right associativity. This means that if an expression contains multiple operators with the same precedence, they are evaluated from left to right.

For example, in the expression `10 - 2 + 3`, both subtraction and addition have the same precedence. As a result, PHP evaluates this expression from left to right, performing the subtraction first (`10 - 2`), yielding `8`. Then it proceeds with the addition (`8 + 3`), resulting in the final answer of `11`.

Understanding operator precedence and associativity is crucial when dealing with expressions involving multiple operators. It helps ensure that expressions are evaluated correctly and reduces confusion or potential errors.

I hope this explanation clarifies how PHP determines the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators. If you have any further questions or if there's anything else you'd like to discuss, feel free to ask!

Happy coding!

Hey everyone,

As a PHP developer, I can share my personal experience regarding the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators in PHP.

In PHP, there is a specific order of evaluation called operator precedence. This determines which operators are evaluated before others. For example, multiplication or division is evaluated before addition or subtraction.

When an expression contains multiple operators, PHP follows this precedence to determine the order of evaluation. It starts by evaluating any expressions enclosed within parentheses first. This ensures that the calculations within the parentheses are performed before moving on to other operators.

Next, PHP evaluates exponentiation, followed by unary operators like negation or identity. Afterwards, it proceeds with multiplication, division, and modulo operators, performing them from left to right. So, in an expression like `9 + 2 * 3`, the multiplication (`2 * 3`) would be evaluated before the addition (`9 + result`).

Lastly, PHP evaluates addition and subtraction operators from left to right, maintaining the precedence defined earlier. For instance, in the expression `10 - 3 + 5`, subtraction (`10 - 3`) will be done first, followed by addition (`result + 5`).

It's essential to understand these rules to avoid any unexpected outcomes due to incorrect operator ordering. However, if the expression becomes convoluted with several operators, using parentheses can clarify the intended order of evaluation and eliminate any ambiguity.

Overall, PHP adheres to operator precedence while determining the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators. I hope this information helps in understanding how PHP handles these scenarios.

Feel free to reach out if you have any further queries or examples you'd like to discuss!

## Related Topics

Hey there,

In my experience with PHP, the order of evaluation for expressions with multiple operators follows the same principles as BODMAS or PEMDAS in mathematics. PHP has a set precedence for operators, where certain operators are evaluated before others.

To begin with, parentheses have the highest precedence. Any expressions inside parentheses are evaluated first. So if you have an expression like `(2 + 3) * 4`, the addition within the parentheses will be evaluated before the multiplication.

After that, PHP evaluates exponentiation (`**` operator) followed by unary operators like negation (`-`) or identity (`+`).

Next in line are multiplication (`*`), division (`/`), and modulo (`%`) operators. These are evaluated from left to right. So in the expression `6 * 3 / 2`, the multiplication is performed before division.

Finally, addition (`+`) and subtraction (`-`) operators are evaluated from left to right. So in an expression like `8 + 4 - 2`, the addition is performed first and then the subtraction.

However, it's always a good practice to use parentheses to remove ambiguity and make the order of evaluation clear, especially when dealing with complex expressions. This helps avoid any confusion or unintended results.

I hope this explanation helps! Let me know if you have any further questions.